By Vincenzo Turco Liveri
The first step in constructing nanoscience and nanotechnology is the creation of nanoparticles. Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Microheterogeneous Systems includes descriptions of 1 of the main strong bottom-up tools of synthesizing dimension managed and solid nanoparticles. this technique relies at the use of surfactant-containing microheterogeneous platforms: liquid crystals, monolayers and multilayers, suggestions of direct and reversed micelles, direct and reversed vesicles, and water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions. the writer is admired within the box of physico-chemical characterization of microheterogeneous structures and their use as perfect solvent and response media for the creation and long term garage of nanomaterials. this can be the 1st e-book that makes an attempt to unify the information important for really apt manipulation of surfactant-based platforms and a great tuning of geometric and physico-chemical houses of nanoparticles of a wide selection of gear. Prof. Turco Liveri has selected to put in writing an easy-to-read publication aiming to be evocative instead of exhaustive.
Because of the serious curiosity in nanoscience and nanomaterials, this e-book is a crucial primary paintings that matches preferably into the sequence Nanostructure technological know-how and expertise and may be priceless for quite a lot of scholars and younger researchers all for the learn and manipulation of topic on the atomic point.
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Additional resources for Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Microheterogeneous Systems
This peculiarity is at the basis of the employment of surfactants as wetting and detergent agents. From the concentration dependence of the surface tension (g), the surface excess concentration (G2 ) of the surfactant in dilute solutions can be evaluated by the equation G2 ¼ À 1 dg RT dlnc 1:14 Obviously, many other physico-chemical properties as well as phenomena dependent on the structural and dynamical properties of the surface are aVected by surfactant addition to aqueous solutions. In addition to the direct solubilization of surfactants in water, monolayers can be prepared by laying drops of an appropriate surfactant/apolar organic solvent system on the water surface and waiting for solvent evaporation.
At low solubilizate concentration, a random distribution is generally hypothesized. Assuming that the inclusion of the solubilizate molecule into the aggregate is independent of the presence of other molecules and that it does not cause a signiWcant change in the micellar aggregation and structure, it can be shown that the distribution of the solubilizate among aggregates follows the Poisson distribution function P(m) ¼ xm eÀx m! 1:30 where P(m) is the probability of Wnding a surfactant aggregate containing m solubilizate molecules and x is the average number of solubilizate molecules per aggregate.
5 and considering the simple and very old rule ‘‘similis similia solvuntur’’ (like dissolves like), the preferential solubilization site of single quite small polar, apolar, and amphiphilic solubilizate molecules in the various liquid crystal structures can be easily predicted. 6 shows their solubilization sites in the hexagonal phase of cylindrical reversed micelles. It must be emphasized that conWnement of Wnite amounts of selected small-size polar substances in reversed hexagonal phases could lead to the formation of zero- and unidimensional aggregates entrapped within the hydrophilic domain, whereas their solubilization in lamellar phases to zero-, uni-, and bidimensional aggregates.
Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles in Microheterogeneous Systems by Vincenzo Turco Liveri