By R. Granit (auth.), R. B. Stein, K. G. Pearson, R. S. Smith, J. B. Redford (eds.)
R. B. Stein division of body structure, college of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada The impetus for this quantity and the convention that gave upward thrust to it was once the sensation that experiences on motor keep watch over had reached a turning aspect. lately, stories on motor devices and muscle receptors became more and more specified. makes an attempt to combine those stories into quantitative types for the spinal keep an eye on of posture have seemed and initial makes an attempt were made to incorporate the main direct supraspinal pathways into those versions (see for instance the chapters through Nashner and Melvill Jones et al. during this volume). therefore, we felt that the time was once ripe to summarize those advancements in a manner that can be precious not just to easy scientific scientists, but additionally to clinicians facing problems of motor keep watch over, and to bioengineers trying to construct units to aid or change common regulate. during the last few years, laptop equipment have additionally made attainable more and more distinctive stories of mammalian locomotion, and better physiological and pharmacological experiences have seemed. There appears nearly common contract now that the styles for locomotion are generated within the spinal twine, and they might be generated with little, if any, phasic sensory details (see chapters by means of Grillner and Miller et al. ). This concludes an extended controversy on no matter if chains of reflexes or valuable circuits generate stepping styles. the character of the development turbines in mammals continues to be vague, yet invertebrate stories on locomotion have lately made notable advances.
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Extra resources for Control of Posture and Locomotion
Neurophysiol. 28, 71-84. B. , 1973. Changes in firing rate of human motor units during linearly changing voluntary contractions. J. Physiol. 230, 371-390. H. , 1969. The effects of length and stimulus rate on tension in the isometric cat soleus muscle. J. Physiol. 204, 443-460. FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION IN TH E MOTOR UNIT POPULATION OF GASTROCNEMIUS CAT MEDIAL MUSCLE R. E. Burke, W. Z. Rymer and J. V. Walsh, Jr. Laboratory of Neural Control, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland The population of motor units making up the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in the cat has been studied as a representative example of a very heterogeneous motor pool.
Experimental tests of the theory are proposed. The vertebrate genome does not have enough DNA to specify, independently, all the connections in the nervous system. There are more than a million neural connections for each base pair in the whole human genome. If the whole genome is used only to specify neural connections, then the average (1000 base pairs) gene would specify about a billion connections. If single genes are specifying millions or billions of connections at once, then researchers must find regularities of connectivity of this order of magnitude.
174 ff). , 1973; Kernell and Sjoholm, 1973). Our most recent theoretical studies of this kind were done on various versions of a model based on the equations (Frankenhaeuser and Huxley, 1964) for Frankenhaeuser's voltage clamp data from the amphibian myelinated nerve. We modified the original Frankenhaeuser-Huxley model (1964; 'F-H model') in certain ways in order to make some of its membrane properties (e. g. its after-potentials) more like the known properties of spinal motoneurones (Kernell and Sjoholm, 1972).
Control of Posture and Locomotion by R. Granit (auth.), R. B. Stein, K. G. Pearson, R. S. Smith, J. B. Redford (eds.)