Download e-book for iPad: Control methods in polymer processing by László Halász (Eds.)

By László Halász (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 044498741X

ISBN-13: 9780444987419

This ebook discusses the method theories and automation degrees of an important polymer procedures that are essential to in attaining product caliber and method economic system. It describes blending, calendering, screw plastications, sheet and tube extrusion, movie blowing, blow moulding and injection moulding. The keep watch over tools hired for every of those person techniques are provided intimately. The booklet is designed to supply info on static and dynamic tactics and manageable keep watch over structures

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Yet another group of impulse tachometers operates in practice, based on optical principles. 37) J v } 60 where N is the revolution number, while P represents the number of cogs, magnetic poles or notches. In the case of electromagnetic distant transmitters the voltage is characterized by the following factors: — the voltage is directly proportional to the revolution number, disregarding the effects of the temperature and temperature losses. The deviation is lower than ±1%, — at very low revolution numbers the amplitude of the induced voltage is practi­ cally zero, thus this method is not suited for measuring low revolution numbers, — the resultant voltage decreases with increasing distance between the cogs or the poles, — increased cog sizes or increased pole surfaces increase the voltage.

Tachogenerators are used in a range of 100 to 10000 min - 1 , with gears in the range from 2 to 1000 min - 1 . The error of the measurement is less than ± 1 % . 4%/°C. Impulse Tachometers Impulse tachometers are applied in instances where the mechanical gear transmis­ sion cannot be used, or in cases, where the revolution number to be measured is excessively low. Impulse tachometers may work using principles of either induction or optics. The inductive tachometers consist of permanent magnets in a cross position, a coil and an iron core.

If the light frequency, fm, coincides with the rotating frequency, / R , the observer concieves the picture on the rotating part of the equipment as being stationary. Naturally, a still picture is formed only if the picture appears at the same position in the time of both flashes, that is, when the rotating frequency equals with 44 that of the flashlight frequency or it is its integer multiple. 34) In practice, it is advisable to choose first a higher frequency, / B1 , where the picture appears to be stationary and then to reduce the frequency of the rotation until a still picture is again obtained (/ B2 ).

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Control methods in polymer processing by László Halász (Eds.)

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