By Christoph Stippich
This is often the 1st textbook on scientific fMRI. it's dedicated to preoperative fMRI in sufferers with mind tumors and epilepsies, that are the main well-established scientific functions. cutting-edge fMRI systems are offered, with certain attention of the physiological and methodological historical past, imaging and knowledge processing, general and pathological findings, diagnostic chances and obstacles, and different similar ideas.
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Additional info for Clinical Functional MRI: Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging
Block designs were necessary in PET studies because of the limited temporal resolution of this imaging technique requiring about 1 min to obtain a single whole-brain image. Since the temporal resolution of fMRI is much higher than PET, it has been proposed to use event-related designs (Blamire et al. 1992; Buckner et al. 1996; Dale and Buckner 1997). The characteristics of these designs (Fig. 10) follow closely those used in event-related potential (ERP) studies. In event-related designs, individual trials of different conditions are not clustered in blocks but are presented in a random sequence.
Since signal levels may vary even across runs within a scanning session of the same subject, it is recommended to present each experimental condition within each run as opposed to change conditions across runs, if possible. g. males vs. females or treatment group vs. control group. g. Buxton et al. 2004). 1 Two Views on fMRI Data Sets In order to better understand different fMRI data analysis steps, two different views on the recorded four-dimensional data sets are helpful. In one view (Fig. 11a), the 4D data is conceptualized as a sequence of functional volumes (3D images).
Another temporal preprocessing step consists in temporal smoothing of voxel time courses removing high-frequency signal ﬂuctuations, which are considered as noise. While this step increases the signal-to-noise ratio, temporal smoothing is not recommended when analyzing event-related designs since it may distort estimates of temporally relevant parameters, such as the onset or width of average event-related responses. Fig. 13. Principle of temporal ﬁ ltering using Fourier analysis. The time-domain signal can be converted in an equivalent frequency-domain signal using the Fourier transform (upper row).
Clinical Functional MRI: Presurgical Functional Neuroimaging by Christoph Stippich