By John Gyford (auth.)
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An award-winning professional on foreign affairs and armed forces heritage finds the spectacular fact approximately battle: Peacekeeping is operating.
learn the newspapers, and you'll be confident conflict is worse than it's ever been: extra civilian deaths, extra rapes, extra armed conflicts all over the international. yet as major pupil and author Joshua Goldstein indicates during this bright, dramatic e-book, the truth is simply the other. we're in the middle of a normal decline in armed clash that's actually notable in human background.
profitable the conflict on struggle is stuffed with startling observations, together with:
- 2010 had one of many lowest demise charges from conflict, relative to inhabitants, of any yr, ever.
- No nationwide armies are at present combating one another--all present wars are civil wars.
- UN peacekeeping truly works rather well, and seventy nine percentage of usa citizens aid the UN, based on a up to date ballot.
Goldstein has compiled proof starting from the histories of UN peacekeeping missions to the newest Swedish facts on armed conflicts. He tells the tales of peacekeeping disasters comparable to Bosnia and Rwanda, but additionally the fewer heralded luck tales corresponding to Mozambique and El Salvador. during this "boots at the ground" account, Goldstein indicates why international peacekeeping efforts are working--how large-scale looting, sexual attack, and genocidal atrocities are being stopped--and how we will proceed profitable the conflict on conflict.
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Additional info for Citizens, Consumers and Councils: Local Government and the Public
In Stoker's words, 'the Fordist approach of providing a standard product for a captive user is no longer viable'. Instead there is taking place a 'trend· away from standardised products towards differentiated products aimed at 32 Citizens, Consumers and Councils different consumer groups' (Stoker, 1989, pp. 162-4). The need for local authorities to move in that direction does not however need to be accounted for solely in terms of the post-Fordist paradigm. It can also be seen as reflecting the growth of a more diverse and more demanding public whose existence may indeed be compatible with the notion of a consumer led, rather than producer led postFordism, but whose origins may lie in a different direction altogether and whose pressure seems likely to move local government ever further away from the centralised, all-embracing county borough model of the golden age of municipal provision.
Within such activities Allison found signs of the 'practices which give meaning to life by relating us to our place, and to each other'. From that perspective the processes of variegation and diversification which could appear to threaten fragmentation and fission might also provide the potential for a healthy and vigorous pluralism of social and political action. Such a possibility becomes all the more likely if we recall that Britain's growing social diversity before and during the 1980s had been accompanied by the growth of more assertive and more participative attitudes amongst the public.
One account suggests that councils respond to such activities on the basis of three criteria, namely the nature of the group, the nature of its demands and the method by which the demand is communicated (Dearlove, 1973, p. 157). Councils are more likely to respond favourably to groups which they identify as being supportive of the council's goals, making demands in tune with council policy and using established channels of communication. Another interpretation identifies the importance of social networks in allowing the personnel of local government and of the world of group action to meet informally and thereby to enhance mutual understanding and sympathy.
Citizens, Consumers and Councils: Local Government and the Public by John Gyford (auth.)