Julia Kwong's Chinese education in transition: Prelude to the Cultural PDF

By Julia Kwong

ISBN-10: 0773503412

ISBN-13: 9780773503410

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Additional info for Chinese education in transition: Prelude to the Cultural Revolution

Example text

To prevent the overcentralized control of the party, Lenin advocated democratic centralism: dependence on the coordination of the party and on the will of the people. The influences of these two aspects of Lenin's thoughts can be detected in Mao's 'On the People's Democratic Dictatorship' and in his 'Some Questions Concerning Methods of Leadership'. Although the thoughts of Mao Tse-tung were based essentially on Marxism-Leninism, they had some distinct characteristics of their own, in that he integrated the principles of Marxism into the Chinese milieu.

In 1958, Liu Shao-ch'i analysed the composition of Chinese society in this way: There are two exploiting classes and two labourer classes in Chinese society today. One of the exploiting classes comprises the bourgeois rightists who oppose socialism, the landlord and compradore classes whose rule had been overthrown, and other reactionaries. The bourgeois rightists are to all intents and purposes agents of the imperialists, the remnants of feudal and compradore forces and Chiang Kai-shek's KMT [Kuomintang or Nationalist Party].

His writings in general deal more with self-discipline and party organization. In his own self-criticism during the Cultural Revolution, he admitted that he distrusted the masses. Nonetheless, both men were flexible in their assessment of objective conditions. Mao asserted that a distinction should be made between primary and secondary contradictions. Primary contradictions should be resolved first, and compromise could then be made on secondary contradictions. Liu, using the same reasoning, advocated a flexible approach in dealing with unresolved situations.

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Chinese education in transition: Prelude to the Cultural Revolution by Julia Kwong


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