By Peter J. Halley
Figuring out the dynamics of reactive polymer procedures permits scientists to create new, excessive worth, excessive functionality polymers. Chemorheology of Polymers presents an integral source for researchers and practitioners operating during this quarter, describing theoretical and commercial methods to characterising the circulation and gelation of reactive polymers. starting with an in-depth remedy of the chemistry and physics of thermoplastics, thermoset and reactive polymers, the center of the publication makes a speciality of basic characterization of reactive polymers, rheological (flow characterization) thoughts and the kinetic and chemorheological types of those structures. Uniquely, the insurance extends to an entire evaluate of the sensible commercial approaches used for those polymers and an perception into the present chemorheological types and instruments used to explain and keep watch over each one approach. This ebook will attract polymer scientists engaged on reactive polymers inside of fabrics technological know-how, chemistry and chemical engineering departments in addition to polymer approach engineers in undefined.
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Additional resources for Chemorheology of Polymers: From Fundamental Principles to Reactive Processing
13(a)). This exempliﬁes the experimental difﬁculties inherent in determining the absolute value of Tg, which is considered in more detail when thermosets are discussed. Of particular interest is the value that a relaxation-dependent property may have when a system is in the vicinity of the glass transition. This is given by the empirical Williams, Landel and Ferry (WLF) equation: Log aT ¼ À17:4ðT À Tg Þ=½51:6 þ ðT À Tg Þ; ð1:21Þ where aT is the ratio of the value of the property at temperature, T, to that at the glass transition, Tg.
Polyesterification Ester formation is a standard organic reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, which is an equilibrium reaction that has been shown to occur under catalysis by either acid or base. In polyesteriﬁcation involving an organic acid, the substrate is itself the catalyst. 1 is the most likely for acid-catalysed esteriﬁcation, with the second reaction being the rate-determining step. 1. The reaction scheme for acid-catalysed esteriﬁcation. e. the concentration of the free-ion species from the ﬁrst reaction step.
2. Glass-transition temperature (Tg) and correlation with polymer structural features Polymer Tg (oC) Structural features Poly(ethylene) Poly(propylene) À100 0 Poly(vinyl chloride) Poly(styrene) Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) 80 100 345 Flexible C–C backbone Hindered C–C backbone due to pendant methyl groups Strong dipolar intermolecular forces Chain stiffening due to pendant phenyl groups In-chain stiffening from p-phenylene groups together with amide hydrogen bonding result in the chains sweeping out a large volume, so Vf is large and Tg is low.
Chemorheology of Polymers: From Fundamental Principles to Reactive Processing by Peter J. Halley