Download PDF by Claude Arthur Knight: Chemistry of Viruses

By Claude Arthur Knight

ISBN-10: 3540067728

ISBN-13: 9783540067726

ISBN-10: 3642858996

ISBN-13: 9783642858994

In 1963, the 1st variation of Chemistry of Viruses used to be released as a contribution to the sequence on viruses subsidized via Protoplasmatologia. An target of the 1st version used to be to study a few significant ideas and methods of chemical virology in a concise demeanour and to accompany this evaluate with a compilation of pertinent references. It used to be expected that this workout will be valuable to the writer in his educating and learn and, optimistically, will be important to readers in addition. The literature of virology has grown greatly for the reason that then, and it really is much more pressing to have a succinct survey. additionally, few authors have tried to combine the findings relating a few of the significant sessions of viruses (that is, animal, bacterial, and plant viruses) yet, fairly, have selected to collect huge monographs dealing extensive with evidence and fancies referring to particular teams of viruses. Such works are important for pursuit of specific themes yet fail to yield a quick, built-in view of virology. the current version of Chemistry of Viruses aspires to this kind of overview. a major try used to be made to deal concisely with each significant subject of chemical virology and to provide examples from assorted sessions of viruses. various references are given to unique articles and evaluate papers in addition to to chose books.

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Under favorable conditions it is possible to detect an impurity present in a concentration of as little as 1 percent of the virus (Williams 1954). It is obvious, of course, that impurities will escape detection if they have the same size and shape as the virus particles, or if they are below the size resolved by the microscope. Also, particles present in small number but large in mass are easily overlooked, owing to sampling difficulties (Lauffer 1951). Nevertheless, under favorable conditions it appears that the electron microscope is capable of detecting impurities at a level presently unattainable by any other physical method.

With respect to the quantitative side of immunochemical tests, it should be noted that the quantitative precipitin test will give a figure for the amount of host antigen in the virus preparation (Kabat 1943). When the host antigen is incorporated in or tightly bound to the virus particles, this value may be only approximate, owing to changes in the number and reactivity of antibody-binding sites. Thus, it was calculated that influenza virus particles contain 20--30 percent host antigen (Knight 1946a), and that Newcastle disease virus contains about 42 percent (Munk and Schafer 1951).

An excellent example of quaternary structure is the architecture of the tobacco mosaic virus particle (see the model in Figure 7). Primary structure is the stablest of the four types since this kind of structure involves covalent bonds, whereas the others depend on secondary attractions, that is, ionic and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The so-called "denaturation" of proteins results from disruption of secondary bonds and is manifested by the unfolding of the protein and changes in the solubility, charge, hydration, and serological and chemical reactivities.

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Chemistry of Viruses by Claude Arthur Knight

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