By Jonathan Black
Normal CONSIDERATIONSBiocompatibility: Definitions and matters creation organic functionality Consensus Definitions dialogue The self-discipline of Biomaterials Afterword: Paradigmatic Shift creation to the organic setting basic concerns comparability of exterior and inner ConditionsProblems in Definition of the organic EnvironmentElements of the organic surroundings Implant existence History Preimplantation dealing with results fabric reaction: functionality ANDDEGRADATION OF MATERIALSIN VIVOSwelling and Leaching advent Fick's legislation of DiffusionAbsorption Examples of Undesi. Read more...
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Extra info for Biological Performance of Materials : Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition
5 Biological Performance of Materials: Fundamentals of Biocompatibility Osmotic Equilibrium Problems arise even in the absence of obvious property changes. The increase in volume due to absorption results in the application of a negative internal hydrostatic stress to the material. This effect can be understood through the following calculation. 31 × 107 erg °K–1 mol–1 T = absolute temperature This is van’t Hoff’s law and the pressure, Π, is called the osmotic pressure. It is an expression of the fact that the activity of the solute in the liquid phase is greater than that in the solid phase.
It is a milieu of high chemical activity combined with a highly variable spectrum of combined mechanical stresses. • Invariant conditions: despite its aggressive aspects, the biological environment displays an extraordinary quality of constancy in physical conditions and composition. Complex control systems exist to maintain that constancy; thus, deviations from established conditions attendant to the presence of materials may be expected to incite restoring responses. The latter portions of this work deal with many aspects of this peculiar environment during examination of typical material and host responses.
Contaminants may be transferred from surgical instruments. For this reason, experimental studies of biological performance should include surface characterization of actual implant specimens selected from the full group fabricated in a particular study in the condition just before surgical insertion. Furthermore, care should be taken when materials are incorporated into devices for clinical trials and use, to see that the surface conditions are the same as those found during earlier developmental studies.
Biological Performance of Materials : Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition by Jonathan Black