By Roy G. Van Driesche, Thomas S. Bellows Jr. (auth.)
`...this authored booklet makes an attempt to hide the whole variety of organic regulate issues for newcomers and does so in a unified manner... worthwhile tables and graphs throughout.'
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Other practices that may be negative influences for some natural enemies include date and manner of turning soil, destruction of crop residues, size and placement of crop patches, and removal of natural enemy overwintering sites such as hedgerows. Positive forms of conservation include efforts to enhance the requisites that natural enemies need to flourish in a system. Such efforts may involve creating or maintaining physical refuges, alternative hosts, or sources of carbohydrates, moderating physical conditions through the use of ground covers, provision of sheltering sites, or use of strip-harvesting methods (van den Bosch et al.
Parasitoids have been the most common type of natural enemy introduced for biological control of insects (Hall and Ehler 1979; Greathead 1986a). Most parasitoids that have been used in biological control are in the orders Hymenoptera (Fig. 1) and, to a lesser degree, Diptera. 1 The braconid parasitoid Aphidius matricariae Hal iday parasitizing its aphid host Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). (Photograph by M. ) While use has been made of parasitoids in at least 26 families, certain groups stand out as having more species employed in biological control projects than others.
TARGETS, AGENTS, AND METHODS 31 In contrast to highly specialized insects targeted at single weed species, some fish have been used as generalist herbivores to control weed complexes in certain habitats, often artificial ones such as canals and water tanks. Among these fish have been several species in the families Cyprinidae, Cichlidae, and Osphronemidae (Julien 1992). Until recently, few plant pathogens had been used as biological weed control agents (Wilson 1969). Since 1970, however, precedents have been set in both the introduction of new pathogens for control of adventive weeds and the formulation of pathogens for use as biological herbicides.
Biological Control by Roy G. Van Driesche, Thomas S. Bellows Jr. (auth.)