By S. Amsterdamski
Polish philosophy of technology has been the beneficiary of 3 strong inventive streams of clinical and philosophical suggestion. First and fore so much was once the Lwow-Warsaw college of Polish analytical philosophy based through Twardowski and endured of their a number of methods by way of Les niewski, Lukasiewicz, and Tarski, the good mathematical and logical philosophers, through Kotarbinski, the most amazing instructor, public determine, and culturally influential thinker of the inter-war and post-war interval, and by means of Ajdukiewicz, the linguistic thinker who used to be intellectually sympathetic with the anti-irrationalist (as he might say), logistic and meta-theoretical inquiries of the Vienna Circle. moment was once self reliant and energetic Polish Marxism, with its effective improvement of social learn lower than Krzywicki, a social anthropologist and more youthful modern of Engels, after which after the battle the economist Lange, the philosophers Schaff, Kolakowski, Baczko, etc. ultimately there was quite a lot of philosophical, clinical and humanistic student send which lends its numerous traits to the knowledge of either the common sense of technological know-how and the historic state of affairs of the sciences: we point out purely that fab and humane physicist Infeld, the phenomenologist with deep epistemological curiosity Ingarden, the historian of medical principles Zawirski, the historian of philosophy and aesthetics Tatarkiewicz, and the mathematical logicians akin to Mostowski and Szaniawski.
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Extra info for Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science
If, on the other hand, they are to be called science, then science has included bodies of belief quite incompatible with the ones we hold today, Given these alternatives, the historian must choose the latter. Outof·date theories are not, in principle, unscientific because they have been discarded. 28 What is more, it is very probable that future generations will, by analogy, be forced to consider much of our theories in the same manner, for even we ourselves do not consider them to be the last word in the search for truth.
It is in this respect that an organism maintains its self-identity in spite of the metabolic process, or for that matter a whole biological species, whose individual members die and are born and even when their numbers may change, still the inter-individual relationships remain unchanged. In this respect also it would be difficult to speak of the self-identity of science in the process of its evolution for in this process not only the content of statements but also their mutual relationships undergo change.
We simply do not perceive that we are either introducing into language a normative definition of the type 'by the term science we mean this or that' or 'we shall call science this or that', or we report on a particular linguistic usage of the term and state how it was used in a particular period of time. In the first case our answer has the character of a linguistic convention. Such conventions are in common use in all the domains of knowledge whenever a clear definition is needed. In the second instance, although we do formulate a descriptive statement, it is not, however, a statement about science, but about the linguistic usage of the term science.
Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science by S. Amsterdamski