By A. W. M. Vermetten, P. Hofschreuder, H. Harssema (auth.), H.-W. Georgii (eds.)
In November 1981 a primary symposium with the subjects of "Acid Deposition of Atmospheric pollution" used to be organised in OberursellTaunus to introduce the issues and primary result of research-activities on rainy and dry deposition of toxins and on acid precipitation. meanwhile the threat to wooded area and plants grew to become extra dramatic and research-projects to enquire the enter of pollution to forest-ecosystems were initiated via a number of interdisciplinary teams. The quickly expanding curiosity within the difficulties of wooded area decay and the numerous open questions with admire to the analysis of the forest-damage have been the historical past for the service provider of a moment symposium which was once held in November 1985 on the comparable position in Oberursel/Taunus. It was once regularly all for new thoughts of sampling and examining toxins in woodland parts. in addition to deposition, one very important pathway of toxins in orographic terrain is the interception of fog-droplets via crops. specific emphasis used to be laid at the chemical composition of fog. The symposium effectively assembled scientists from the sector of atmospheric study with these learning the impression of toxins on timber and crops with a purpose to lessen the various open questions in reference to woodland desease. The court cases offered during this quantity are a considerable contribution to the knowledge of deposition and interception of pollution in forest-areas. due to the authors the amount encompasses a lot of latest examine ·results and provides hence a real photo of our current knowledge.
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Additional resources for Atmospheric Pollutants in Forest Areas: Their Deposition and Interception
And 103calculated as Sand 1 respectively. 2 Episodic character of the wet deposition As mentioned above, the wet deposition is dominated by the individual amount of rainfall. This nescessarily leads to the observed episodic nature. During these episodes, large fractions of the annual deposition of trace elements can occur within short periods of time. This phenomenon is of special interest when discussing possible damages caused by high deposition rates. After investigations through several years in Southern Scotland, Fowler and Cape (1984) stated that up to 40 % of the annual wet deposition of prot ones are related to less than 4 % of the annual rainfall-events.
M. BRECHTEL ET AL. 62 in the open field and spruce stands in relation to the annual sum of precipitation in 1982 and 1983. The average annual concentrations of the bulk precipitation input in the spruce stands are, with a much larger spatial and temporal variance, obviously much higher than in the open area /18/. The differences, expressed as multiples of the open area values, are: Cl and N03 3 - 6, 504 6 - 12, P04 3 - 4, NH4 4 - 7. Only a certain element dependant part of the spruce stand enrichment is the result of a decreased net precipitation caused by an interception loss of 30 - 55 %.
Min. 0 1983 Max. Min. 3 623 317 654 445 582 248 774 396 804 490 742 322 II. 3 13. 1 Ammonium, III. 757 H. M. BRECHTEL ET AL. 62 in the open field and spruce stands in relation to the annual sum of precipitation in 1982 and 1983. The average annual concentrations of the bulk precipitation input in the spruce stands are, with a much larger spatial and temporal variance, obviously much higher than in the open area /18/. The differences, expressed as multiples of the open area values, are: Cl and N03 3 - 6, 504 6 - 12, P04 3 - 4, NH4 4 - 7.
Atmospheric Pollutants in Forest Areas: Their Deposition and Interception by A. W. M. Vermetten, P. Hofschreuder, H. Harssema (auth.), H.-W. Georgii (eds.)