By PRIGOGINE, RICE
This publication is going into element with 5 wide articles regarding fresh advances in floor technological know-how (1974). The contents are: 1) selection of the constitution and homes of strong surfaces by means of electron diffraction and emission (measuring the constitution and homes of strong surfaces through measuring and reading scattering emission of electrons from those surfaces), 2) Electron spectroscopy of chemisorption of metals (study of chemisorption on fresh, unmarried crystal surfaces of metals using the tactic of box emission of from adsorbate lined surfaces and the strategy of photoemission spectroscopy), three) floor plasma oscillations and comparable floor results in solids (study of oscillations in solid-state plasmas), four) conception of dynamical homes of dielectric surfaces (study of the lattice vibrations current on surfaces), five) a few reviews at the digital houses of liquid-metal surfaces (theories and research of liquid-metal surfaces).
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It should be pointed out that the largest variation in the amplitude of load demand is not necessarily related to the maximum peak and the highest rate is not necessarily related to the largest variation of a load curve. The pattern of daily diagrams and all the above-mentioned characteristics are different for various days of the week: working days (separate consideration is generally needed for Monday), Saturday and Sunday (likewise holidays). And for these typical days the pattern can differ according to the season.
First, load has an intermittent nature and is continuously growing. The other is concerned with the expansion of existing plants in order to face the growing demand. In addition, old power plants need to be retired and new ones constructed. The economic value of the participation of a new unit in a given generating system has to be considered in relation to the variations imposed on the energy production of the existing units and to the reserve requirements. However, of more relevance to the problem of planning to meet future load demand is not the rated power of new plant required but the choice of plant type.
2. static characteristics related to the capability to deliver energy at a required amount of power, and; dynamic characteristics related to the ability to be loaded or unloaded at a required rate. As far as static characteristics are concerned, the main difference lies between thermal units, which have, in principle, unlimited primary energy available, and hydro units, which have a more or less limited amount of primary energy at their disposal. In the first case, the duration of power output is, in principle, unlimited, but in the second there is a link between power output and its duration.
Aspects of the study of surfaces by PRIGOGINE, RICE