Download e-book for kindle: Acidification in Finland by Ilkka Savolainen, Markus Tähtinen (auth.), Pekka Kauppi, Pia

By Ilkka Savolainen, Markus Tähtinen (auth.), Pekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642754503

ISBN-13: 9783642754500

ISBN-10: 364275452X

ISBN-13: 9783642754524

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Example text

The emission factors for fur animals have not been studied over a long period, and many issues are yet to be solved. Ammonia emissions from fur farms have caused local disturbances in the growth of forests (Ferm et al. ). Emission from Artificial Fertilizers In Finland, about 200,000 tons of nitrogen are sold annually, contained in artificial fertilizers, more than 80% being in mixed fertilizers. The amount of nitrogen corresponds to about 9 g m - 2 of arable area. In artificial fertilizers, nitrogen is in the form of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate or urea.

012 A lAJ 3 . ;' ..... ':2{ 22~1I >:~') 30 25 6",,- 1t 3 36 15 5 108 50 161 130 89 31\ 5 35 20! ~ : ~:r~8 2 34 541 3 js~ ~:) 171)16 7 40 814 ~ 159;. ~2 184 128~ 301 225 151\. 80 ~O 244 676 430 320 0 ~. :. 2 9 r1t~ 01(5 I~l> ~ 1'\ 6 4~ 40 0 25 15 ~4 0 o 28 150 10 ~ 25;5? r:-15 l61 20 2 4 0 5 o 12 8\ 1 lCJ~~O~~~ 20 3 2 ). J; 0 1\ 2 35 ~1 t? 70 2"'--0 11 ( 1 o \ 0 0 3) 6 0 \ 1 \ 9 '\. 0 6 (~~W 3'--~ 0 2 (,1\ o o 38 \'itl\ \ 0~11r--.. 2N? 1-> 330 270 i15 /137 143 'losr 1M ~3. 41 18 3V HIlt-' ! r2U 64 Fig.

1984). Ammonia Emissions in the 1980s 37 Fig. 1. 10 ~. ) from livestock manure and artificial fertilizers in the different provinces of Finland. (Keranen and Niskanen 1987) There are regional variations in emissions. The estimated emissions in the different provinces of Finland are presented in Fig. 1. 3 g m- 2 in Turku and Pori province. 01 g m- 2 , occur in Lapland province. Finnish- experimental results are very limited, and estimates of emission are based mainly on results obtained in other countries.

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Acidification in Finland by Ilkka Savolainen, Markus Tähtinen (auth.), Pekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies (eds.)


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